Professor James Pattison

Professor of Politics, B.A., M.A., PhD (Newcastle)

 

Address: Politics, School of Social Sciences, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK

 

Email: james.pattison@manchester.ac.uk

Tel: 0161 275 4931

 

 

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James Pattison is Professor of Politics at the University of Manchester. His work focuses on the ethical issues surrounding conflict, at the intersection between political philosophy and International Relations. Pattison has written two books (both with Oxford University Press) and published over 20 journal articles since 2007, including in British Journal of Political Science, Ethics & International Affairs, European Journal of International Relations, International Theory, Journal of Political Philosophy, and Review of International Studies. He currently co-edits a book series on War, Conflict, and Ethics (with Michael Gross) for Routledge. Pattison’s CV (from Nov 2015) can be downloaded here.

 

He currently serves as the Director or Research for Politics and is a member of the Politics Leadership Team.

 

Current Work

 

His research interests currently lie in three related areas: (1) Just War Theory and the alternatives to war; (2) humanitarian intervention and the responsibility to protect (R2P); and (3) the use of private military and security companies.

 

On (1): He is currently writing a book, provisionally entitled Just and Unjust Alternatives to War (under contract with Oxford University Press). This considers the ethics of the measures in response to mass atrocities and conflict, instead of direct military intervention or war. These measures include diplomacy, naming and shaming, economic sanctions, arms embargoes, nonviolent resistance, arming rebel groups, and inducements. This research has been funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council (Ref AH/LOO3783/1). His papers on diplomacy, sanctions, and arming rebels are available to download below.

 

On (2): His first book, Humanitarian Intervention and the Responsibility to Protect: Who Should Intervene? (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010) was awarded a 'Notable Book Award' in 2011 by the International Studies Association (International Ethics Section). He has also completed on a four-volume ‘Major Work’ on humanitarian intervention (published in 2014) for Sage’s ‘Library of International Relations’ series. From 2013-2016, he was a co-investigator on an ESRC Seminar Series on the R2P and the rising powers. This resulted in several outputs, including a special issue of Cooperation & Conflict.

 

On (3): His second book, The Morality of Private War: The Challenge of Private Military and Security Companies (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014) considers in detail the ethical problems raised by the privatisation of war. This was based on research carried during an ESRC-funded project, "The Morality of Private War", 2010-2012 (RES-000-22-4042). This was awarded 'Outstanding' (the highest possible grade) in the End of Award Assessment. 

 

Publications

Book in progress

 

- James Pattison, Just and Unjust Alternatives to War (under contract with Oxford University Press).

Just and Unjust Alternatives to War considers the ethics of the alternatives to war, such as diplomatic pressure, economic sanctions, and peacekeeping and nonviolent resistance, in the face of mass atrocities and serious external aggression. Overall, it provides an assessment of the moral arguments for and against these measures, which have received relatively little attention in the literature. In doing so, it develops a normative account of the alternatives to war as a whole, drawing on and developing recent work in Just War Theory, as well as other relevant literatures.

 

Authored Books

- James Pattison (2014) The Morality of Private War: The Challenge of Private Military and Security Companies (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Available on OUP.co.uk, OUP.com, Amazon.co.uk, and Amazon.com.

The increased use of private military and security companies (PMSCs) is often said to be one of the most significant changes to the military in recent times. The Morality of Private War: The Challenge of Private Military and Security Companies provides a detailed assessment of the moral arguments for and against the use of PMSCs. In doing so, it considers objections to private force at the employee, employer, and international levels. For instance, does the potential for private contractors to possess mercenary motives affect whether they can use military force? Does a state abdicate an essential responsibility when it employs PMSCs? Is the use of PMSCs morally preferable to the alternatives, such as an all-volunteer force and a conscripted army? What are the effects of treating military services as a commodity for the governing rules of the international system? Overall, The Morality of Private War argues that private military force leads to not only contingent moral problems stemming from the lack of effective regulation, but also several deeper, more fundamental problems that mean that public force should be preferred. Nevertheless, it also argues that, despite these problems, PMSCs can sometimes (although rarely) be morally permissibly used. Ultimately, The Morality of Private War argues that the challenges posed by the use of PMSCs mean that we need to reconsider how military force ought to be organized and to reform our thinking about the ethics of war and, in particular, Just War Theory.

Reviewed in the Times Literary Supplement, by Holly Lawford-Smith: The book is detailed and accessible, and the conclusions Pattison reaches are both pragmatic and persuasive”.

Also reviewed in Political Studies Review, African Security Review, St. Anthony's International Review, Parameters, Socialism and Democracy, and International Affairs.

 

 

- James Pattison (2010) Humanitarian Intervention and the Responsibility to Protect: Who Should Intervene? (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Available on OUP.co.uk, OUP.com, Amazon.co.uk, and Amazon.com.

Humanitarian Intervention and the Responsibility to Protect considers who should undertake humanitarian intervention in response to an ongoing or impending humanitarian crisis, such as found in Rwanda in early 1994, Kosovo in 1999, and Darfur more recently. The doctrine of the responsibility to protect asserts that when a state is failing to uphold its citizens' human rights, the international community has a responsibility to protect these citizens, including by undertaking humanitarian intervention. It is unclear, however, which particular agent should be tasked with this responsibility. Should we prefer intervention by the UN, NATO, a regional or subregional organization (such as the African Union), a state, a group of states, or someone else? This book answers this question by, first, determining which qualities of interveners are morally significant and, second, assessing the relative importance of these qualities. For instance, is it important that an intervener have a humanitarian motive? Should an intervener be welcomed by those it is trying to save? How important is it that an intervener will be effective and what does this mean in practice? The book then considers the more empirical question of whether (and to what extent) the current interveners actually possess these qualities, and therefore should intervene. For instance, how effective can we expect UN action to be in the future? Is NATO likely to use humanitarian means? Overall, it develops a particular normative conception of legitimacy for humanitarian intervention. It uses this conception of legitimacy to assess not only current interveners, but also the desirability of potential reforms to the mechanisms and agents of humanitarian intervention.

Awarded 'Notable Book Award' by the International Studies Association (International Ethics Section), 2011.

Subject of Symposium in Global Discourse, with reviews by David Miller and Graham Long.

Subject of Review Essays by Jennifer Welsh,  Eric HeinzeSteven LeePhil Orchard,  Peter Hilpold, and Marc G. Doucet 

 

Edited Reference Works

James Pattison (ed.) (2014) Humanitarian Intervention: Sage Library of International Relations, Four Volumes (London: Sage).

 

Articles

(Many of these are free to read or download. Just click the link)

James Pattison (forthcoming) “The Case for the Nonideal Morality of War: Beyond Revisionism vs. Traditionalism in Just War Theory”, Political Theory.

Aidan Hehir and James Pattison (2016) “Introduction: The Responsibility to Protect after the Arab Spring”, Cooperation and Conflict, 52/2: 141–7. This paper is ‘Gold Open Access’.

James Pattison (2015) "The Ethics of Diplomatic Criticism: The Responsibility to Protect, Just War Theory, and Presumptive Last Resort”, European Journal of International Relations, 21/4: 935–57. This paper is ‘Gold Open Access’.

James Pattison (2015) “The Ethics of Arming Rebels”, Ethics & International Affairs, 29/4: 455–71. Also available from CUP here (copyright CUP).

James Pattison (2015) “The Morality of Sanctions", Social Philosophy and Policy, 32/1: 192-215. Also available from CUP here (copyright CUP).

James Pattison (2015) “Jus Post Bellum and the Responsibility to Rebuild",  British Journal of Political Science, 45/3: 635–61. Also available from CUP here (copyright CUP).

James Pattison (2015) “Mapping the Responsibilities to Protect: A Typology of International Duties”, Global Responsibility to Protect, 7/2: 190–210. Also available from Brill here (copyright Brill)

James Pattison (2014) "Justa Piratica: The Ethics of Piracy", Review of International Studies, 40/4: 631-56. Also available from CUP here (copyright CUP). 

James Pattison (2014) “The Case for Criteria: Moving R2P Forward after the Arab Spring”, e-International Relations

James Pattison (2013) "Is there a Duty to Intervene? Intervention and the Responsibility to Protect", Philosophy Compass, 8/6: 570-9. 

James Pattison (2013) "When Is It Right to Fight? Just War Theory and the Individual-Centric Approach", Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, 16/1: 35-54.

Deane-Peter Baker and James Pattison (2012) "The Principled Case for Employing Private Military and Security Companies in Interventions for Human Rights Purposes", Journal of Applied Philosophy, 29/1: 1–18.

James Pattison (2012) "The Legitimacy of the Military, Private Military and Security Companies, and Just War Theory", European Journal of Political Theory, 11/2: 131–54.

James Pattison (2011) "Introduction to Roundtable on Libya, RtoP, and Humanitarian Intervention", Ethics & International Affairs, 25/3: 251–4. This article is also available from the copyright holder here.

James Pattison (2011) "The Ethics of Humanitarian Intervention in Libya", Ethics & International Affairs, 25/3: 271–7. This article is also available from the copyright holder here.

James Pattison (2011) "The Rights and Duties of Humanitarian Intervention: A Reply to Two Critics", Global Discourse, 2 (I).

James Pattison (2010) "Deeper Objections to the Privatisation of Military Force", Journal of Political Philosophy, 18/4: 425–47. This article is also available from the copyright holder here.

James Pattison (2010) "Outsourcing the Responsibility to Protect: Humanitarian Intervention and Private Military and Security Companies" International Theory, 2/1: 1–31. This article is also available from the copyright holder here.

James Pattison (2009) "Humanitarian Intervention, the Responsibility to Protect, and Jus in Bello", Global Responsibility to Protect, 1/3: 346–91.

James Pattison (2008) "Whose Responsibility to Protect? The Duties of Humanitarian Intervention", Journal of Military Ethics, 7/4: 262–83.

James Pattison (2008) "Legitimacy and Humanitarian Intervention: Who Should Intervene?", International Journal of Human Rights, 12/3: 395–413.

James Pattison (2008) "Just War Theory and the Privatization of Military Force", Ethics & International Affairs, 22/2: 143–62. This article is also available from the copyright holder  here.

James Pattison (2008) "Humanitarian Intervention and a Cosmopolitan UN Force", Journal of International Political Theory, 4/1: 126–45. This article is also available from the copyright holder here.

James Pattison (2007) "Representativeness and Humanitarian Intervention", Journal of Social Philosophy, 38/4: 569–87. This article is also available from the copyright holder  here.

James Pattison (2007) "Humanitarian Intervention and International Law: The Moral Significance of an Intervener's Legal Status", Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy, 10/3: 301–19.

 

Book Chapters

 

James Pattison (forthcoming) “Unarmed Bodyguards to the Rescue? The Ethics of Nonviolent Intervention”, in Michael Gross and Tamar Meisels (eds), Soft War: The Ethics of Unarmed Conflict (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). 

James Pattison (forthcoming). “Guns vs Troops: The Ethics of Supplying Arms, International Law, and Military Intervention”, in Aidan Hehir and Robert Murray (eds) Protecting Human Rights in an Age of Uncertainty (London: Routledge).

James Pattison (2016) “The Ethics of ‘Responsibility While Protecting’: Brazil, the Responsibility to Protect, and the Restrictive Approach to Humanitarian Intervention”, in Kai Michael Kenkel and Philip Cunliffe (eds), Brazil as a Rising Power: Intervention Norms and the Contestation of Global Order (London: Routledge), pp. 104–26.

James Pattison (2014) “Bombing the Beneficiaries: The Distribution of the Costs of the Responsibility to Protect and Humanitarian Intervention”, in Don Scheid (ed), The Ethics of Armed Humanitarian Intervention (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 113–30.

James Pattison (2014) “Introduction”, in James Pattison (ed.) (2014) Humanitarian Intervention: Sage Library of International Relations, Four Volumes (London: Sage).

Deane-Peter Baker and James Pattison (2013) “Mercenaries and Private Military Companies” in Hugh LaFollette (ed), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics, (Blackwell), pp. 3205-212.

James Pattison (2012) "Assigning Humanitarian Intervention and the Responsibility to Protect" in Julia Hoffmann and André NollKaemper (eds) Responsibility to Protect: From Principle to Practice (Amsterdam University Press/Pallas Publications), pp. 173–84.

James Pattison (2010) "Legitimacy" in Mark Bevir (ed), Sage Encyclopaedia of Political Theory, pp. 785–8.

 

James is willing (and keen) to supervise additional PhD students.

 

Last updated: Jan 2017

 

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